Human rights violations should not go unpunished in the tragedy at Kanjuruhan Stadium – at least 131 people dead

On 1 October 2022, the chaos that ended in tragedy took over the stadium after a football competition between Arema FC and Persebaya Surabaya at Kanjuruhan Stadium in Malang, East Java. As a result of the incident, as of 5 October 2022, 131 people were reported dead(*) and hundreds injured. Thirty-four people died inside the stadium; the remaining victims died in the hospital. This has been, so far, the darkest football tragedy in the history of Indonesian football.

The police response to the crowd unrest has raised questions about this tragedy’s human rights violations. The use of excessive force by the authorities caused the audience to panic and desperately look for an exit to find safety. People died from suffocation, trampling, and running out of oxygen due to tear gas released by the police towards the stands. Moreover, as per FIFA regulations, teargas should not have been carried out by the police around the perimeter of the field.

Kanjuruhan Stadium hosts the 11th week of the 2022-2023 League 1 match between Arema FC and Persebaya Surabaya. Persebaya has never won at Arema’s home ground for decades of competing. That night, Persebaya defeated Arema FC with a score of 2:3. Some disappointed Arema FC supporters approached the field. According to the East Java Police Chief, Inspector General Nico, initially, only a few went down to the area and looked for Arema players and officials. They asked why they lost against Persebaya. After that, the police provided security to the players. The police dissuaded the audience from invading the field and looking for the players.

The statement of the East Java Police Chief is almost the same as the testimony of one of the Aremania who survived. Rezqi Wahyu, in his Twitter account @RezqiWahyu_05, admitted that the riots began to break out when a supporter from the direction of the South Stand was desperate to enter and approach two Arema players, namely defender Sergio Silva and goalkeeper Adilson Maringa. According to him, the two people seemed to provide motivation and criticism. After that, several other Aremania followed down and expressed their disappointment with the players. Suddenly, thousands of spectators scattered to the field, followed by throwing objects into the area. The supporters were getting out of control. The authorities also made various efforts to repel the supporters. The treatment that Rezki wrote about was ruthless and sadistic; being hit with a long stick, one supporter was ganged up on by the authorities, collided with a shield, and many other actions. In the videos that circulated, soldiers were seen kicking Arema supporters, even when they were walking on the sidelines.

The supporters then attacked the authorities and were rewarded with successive tear gas shots. There were also police who immediately fired tear gas toward the stands. The supporters who panicked because of the tear gas were increasingly chaotic in the stands. They ran around looking for the exit, but unfortunately, the entrance was already crowded.

Rizki’s testimony was followed by the testimony of eyewitnesses who began to speak up on October 3, 2022. Not only once, but the police also fired tear gas several times toward the stands. An Aremania eyewitness, Dadang Indarto, said the first tear gas shooting occurred in the east sector, after which it continued in the north sector once in sector 8 of the stadium 10-14. The first tear gas shot was not so powerful. The second shot at stands one to 14 occurred almost simultaneously. According to him, the second shot was mighty, and the gas was very painful. He felt this was not the usual tear gas used to dispel the masses. His vision blurred, his eyes stung, and his breathing laboured. Suddenly, the tear gas made the spectators in the stands panic and scatter to find the exit.

Usually, at a soccer match, 15 minutes before the end, all the stadium doors are opened, but not on that day. Almost all exits were closed. In the video, it is obvious how football spectators are crowded at gate 13. Many people, including women, limp, but the doors are not opened. Eko Rianto, one of the survivors, said that he found gate 13 locked even though many people were screaming that they could not stand the tear gas. Many children and women faint. According to the testimony of a Curva sud representative (Arema FC supporter), Door 13 was opened in the 85th minute; there were still police and security forces at that time. A witness even left and re-entered through gate 13 in the 85th minute. She heard tear gas, so she went to the stands, and gate 13 was closed when she returned.

Another witness at the East Gate said that only that door was open. Two people can only pass that door at the same time—the position of the door from the stadium downhill. Automatically, if just one person falls due to pushing from behind, that’s where the accumulation occurs, and the back is stuck. Detained people cannot immediately get out while tear gas disturbs the eyes. Moreover, the electricity in the direction of the tear gas shot died. In Komnas HAM’s temporary investigation, it turned out that only two of the 14 stadium doors were open during the riot incident.

Outside the stadium, the situation was also tense, with several cars being burned. After the car burning incident, the authorities fired tear gas—the testimony of the shopkeeper in front of the stadium said that around 11 pm, supporters who were not involved in the riot entered his shop. Most of them were women and children. The police fired tear gas up to three times toward his shop. He asked the police why tear gas was fired at a stall that sold food and drinks. There were women and children there. The police said it was probably a misfire. However, according to him, the misfire was not only once but several times.

There were many fatal mistakes in the management of this football match—from stadium overcapacity to the organisation of competitions at night. Nugroho Setiawan, AFC Security officer, said this was a high-risk football match because of a history of rivalry between Persebaya supporters and Arema FC supporters. There is a history of hostility. Therefore, the stadium should be at a safe capacity of only 70% of the stadium capacity so that there is room for movement. However, the committee printed 42,588 tickets even though the ability of the Kanjuruhan stadium was only for 38,000 people. The police and the committee, dated September 29, 2022, had requested that the match be held in the afternoon, not at night. However, the league operator, PT Liga Indonesia Baru, did not want to change the schedule. They follow the television schedule from the broadcaster, namely pursuing prime time. Of the various mistakes, the most fatal was tear gas and weapons inside the stadium. Even though according to the FIFA Stadium Safety and Security Regulation article 19 point B, firearms and tear gas should not be carried or used around the field in the stadium.

The Chairperson of Komnas HAM has called for the State to take responsibility for this incident. There is evidence of violence by the authorities. Commissioner of the Human Rights Commission, Choirul Anam, said that the casualties could have been avoided if there had been no tear gas. Chairman of Komnas HAM, Ahmad Taufan Damanik, on October 2, 2022, asked the government to be responsible for health and humanitarian aspects and other losses caused by this incident. Komnas also asked the police to conduct a thorough investigation of this tragedy. Komnas HAM has sent a monitor to investigate the human rights aspects of this incident. Komnas is still investigating the location of most of the victims who died, whether near the tear gas canisters or in other areas. Komnas is also investigating the allegation that the tear gas used by the authorities during the riots had expired.

Meanwhile, the police, on October 3, 2022, through the Police Public Relations Division, Inspector General Dedi Prasetyo said that the police had raised the investigation status to an investigation into the Stadium Tragedy case. The police investigated the basis of Article 359 of the Criminal Code and Article 360 of the Criminal Code. Meanwhile, 28 police officers will examine for alleged violations of the code of ethics. TNI Commander General Andika Perkasa, on October 5, 2022, said that he had examined five soldiers, four of whom had confessed. Andika said TNI personnel attacked residents without justification, even kicking when supporters turned their backs on them, as seen in various videos. 

(*) Update from 23.10.2022: The number of deaths increased to 135. A total of 579 people were injured.

Detailed Case Data
name of the location: Kanjuruhan Stadium (-8.141348375485295, 112.57382099539012)
administrative region: Indonesia, East Java Province, Malang Regency, Kepanjen District
total number of victims: 131
period of incident: 01.10.2022
perpetrator: police
perpetrator details: unknown
Issues: freedom of peaceful assembly, right to life
Sources: https://www.beritasatu.com/news/985179/dinkes-rilis-daftar-namanama-korban-meninggal-tragedi-kanjuruhan, https://jatim.tribunnews.com/2022/10/03/polri-naikkan-status-penyidikan-kasus-tragedi-stadion-kanjuruhan-28-polisi-akan-diperiksa-kode-etik, https://news.detik.com/berita/d-6330273/panglima-tni-5-prajurit-diperiksa-soal-tragedi-kanjuruhan
Further HRM News: https://humanrightsmonitor.org/news/president-jokowi-establishes-a-fact-fiding-team-to-further-investigate-the-tragedy-in-kajuruan-stadium/

NumberName, DetailsGenderAgeGroup AffiliationViolation
1MUCHAMAD ARIFIN, TUMPANG (identified)Male45Football supportersright to life
1MOCH HASHFI AL WAFI, WAGIR (identified)

Male16Football supportersright to life
1RONI SETIAWAN, KROMENGAN (identified)Male23Football supportersright to life
1ANGGRAENI DWI KRUNIASARI, SUMBERPUCUNG (identified)

Female20Football supportersright to life
1VIKY ROHIBALA, TAJINAN (identified)

Male27Football supportersright to life
1IWAN JUNAEDI, SINGOSARI (identified)

Male45Football supportersright to life
1FAIQOTUL HIKMAH,  SUMBERSARI, JEMBER (identified)

Female22Football supportersright to life
1FILLAH AZIZ FIRMANSYAH, GONDANGLEGI (identified)Male21Football supportersright to life
1ELISABETH AGUSTIN, TUMPANG (identified)

Female16Football supportersright to life
1MOH RIZKI DARMAWAN, GARUM, BLITAR (identified)

Male16Football supportersright to life
1GILANG SURYA RAMADANI BLIMBING, KOTA MALANG (identified)Male20Football supportersright to life
1ANIK HARIANI, PAGAK (identified)

Female40Football supportersright to life
1HADI KURNIAWAN, BATU (identified)Male22Football supportersright to life
1HUTRI ADI HERMANTO, PAKISAJI (identified)Male37Football supportersright to life
1AHMAD WAHYUDI, LOWOKWARU, KOTA MALANG (identified)

Male27Football supportersright to life
1MOHAMMAD ADIT, PAGELARAN (identified)Male27Football supportersright to life
1JEFRI IKLASTUL AMAL, GEDANGAN (identified)

Male27Football supportersright to life
1AHMAD DANI SAFARUDIN, KEPANJEN (identified)

Male15Football supportersright to life
1MOCH. TEGAR ARDIAN, PAKISAJI (identified)Male17Football supportersright to life
1ARNOLD, PAGELARAN (identified)Female22Football supportersright to life
1MOCH. ABID HUSNI, BANTUR (identified)

Male18Football supportersright to life
1MUHAMMAD NOVAL PUTRA AULIA, SUMBERSARI, JEMBER (identified)Male21Football supportersright to life
1EKO VIKI SULISTIYONO, TAJINAN TERIDENTIFIKASI

Male26Football supportersright to life
1HADIYATUS TSANIYAH, UJUNG PANGKAH, GRESIK (identified)Female24Football supportersright to life
1MUHAMMAD UBAIDILLAH, PAKIS (identified)Male15Football supportersright to life
1ALFINIA MAHARANI PUTRI, LOWOKWARU, KOTA MALANG (identified)

Female20Football supportersright to life
1WAHYUDI, WAJAK (identified)Male22Football supportersright to life
1MOH BINTANG PRATAMA, KROMENGAN (identified)

Male27Football supportersright to life
1GABY ASTA PUTRI, WAJAK (identified)Female37Football supportersright to life
1TASYA, WAJAK (identified)Female16Football supportersright to life
1EVI NUR ROSIDAH, KALIPARE (identified)

Female22Football supportersright to life
1LALA, WAJAK (identified)

Female14Football supportersright to life
1HENDRIK GUNAWAN, PURWODADI, PASURUAN (identified)Male21Football supportersright to life
1RADINA ASTRID YUFITASARI, SUKUN, KOTA MALANG (identified)Female20Football supportersright to life
1MUHAMMAD HAFIZH APRILIANTO, KEDUNGKANDANG, KOTA MALANG (identified)Male19Football supportersright to life
1AUDI NESIA ALFIARI, KEDUNGKANDANG, KOTA MALANG (identified)Female12Football supportersright to life
1SHIFWA DINAR, KEDUNGKANDANG, KOTA MALANG (identified)

Female17Football supportersright to life
1BRAGI KUSUMA, AMPELGADING (identified)

Male20Football supportersright to life
1AGUS RIANSYAHPRATAMA PUTRA, PURWOSARI, PASURUAN (identified)Female20Football supportersright to life
1GABRIEL, WONOSARI (identified)

Male16Football supportersright to life
1FAIZ AL FIKRY, NGUNUT, BLITAR (identified)Male18Football supportersright to life
1RATNA INDRIYANI, BULULAWANG (identified)

Female26Football supportersright to life
1FIRMAN NUR ABIDIN, KEDUNGKANDANG, KOTA MALANG (identified)

Male32Football supportersright to life
1M RIZAL ILHAMIN, AMPELGADING (identified)Male18Football supportersright to life
1GEBY SETYAWARDANI, PAGAK (identified)

Female16Football supportersright to life
1MOH. IRSYAD AL JUNED, LOWOKWARU, KOTA MALANG (identified)

Male20Football supportersright to life
1CITRA AYU AMELIA, PAKISAJI (identified)

Female15Football supportersright to life
1SALSA YONAS OCTAVIA, SUKUN, KOTA MALANG (identified)Female39Football supportersright to life
1REVANO PRASETYO, WONOSARI (identified)

Male15Football supportersright to life
1MUNIFA LATIFUL IKSAN, NGARIBOYO, MAGETAN (identified)Male20Football supportersright to life
1WILDAN RAMADANI, PAGELARAN (identified)

Male19Football supportersright to life
1ABIAN HASYI RIFKI, KRAKSAAN, PROBOLINGGO (identified)

Male18Football supportersright to life
1ANDIKA BAYU PRADANA, NGLEGOK, BLITAR (identified)Male20Football supportersright to life
1FAJAR YOYOK, TRENGGALEK BRIPTU POLRES TRENGGALEKMaleunknownPoliceright to life
1ANDIK PURWANTO, TULUNGAGUNG BRIPKAPOLRES TULUNGAGUNGMaleUnknownPoliceright to life
1SYAHRULLAH, GONDANG LEGI (identified)

Male18Football supportersright to life
1INDHI RAHMA PUTRI, TULUNGAGUNG (identified)Female19Football supportersright to life
1MUH. VIRDI PRAYOGA, BLIMBING, KOTA MALANG (identified)

Male3Football supportersright to life
1KLARISTA DISCA SAPUTRI, WAGIR (identified)Female18Football supportersright to life
1HERLANGGA ADITAMA, TULUNGAGUNG (identified)Male18Football supportersright to life
1LUTVIA DAMAYANTI, BLIMBING, KOTA MALANG (identified)

Female20Football supportersright to life
1MOCHAMAD ALI MUHTAR, WAJAK (identified)MaleUnknownFootball supportersright to life
1NAFISATUL MUKHOYAROH, KLOJEN, KOTA MALANG (identified)Female24Football supportersright to life
1EL VIDUALLY, SUKUN, KOTA MALANG (identified)Male23Football supportersright to life
1SANDI SANJAYA, KALIPARE (identified)Male21Football supportersright to life
1MUSTOFA, BLITAR (identified)

Male15Football supportersright to life
1M. RIAN FAUZI, TUREN (identified)Male15Football supportersright to life
1KAKA WIDAD, DAU (identified)Male17Football supportersright to life
1HADINATA, SUMBERGEMPOL, TULUNGAGUNG (identified)

Male21Football supportersright to life
1ANGGER A.P, KOTA MALANG, (identified)Female19Football supportersright to life
1LINDA SETYA, DAMPIT (identified)

Female18Football supportersright to life
1LAMHADI IRAWAN, KEDUNGKANDANG, KOTA MALANG (identified)

Male20Football supportersright to life
1WAHYU NUR UTOMO, TUMPANG (identified)

Male18Football supportersright to life
1ACH NUR CAHYO, PAKIS (identified)

Male Football supportersright to life
1ACHMAD HUSEN RAHMADANI, SUMBER GEMPOL, TULUNGAGUNG (identified)

Male16Football supportersright to life
1RIYO EDIT SETYAWAN,  TUMPANG (identified)Male21Football supportersright to life
1M. ARI MAULANA, PAKIS (identified)

Male18Football supportersright to life
1RUDI HARIYANTO,  BLIMBING, KOTA MALANG (identified)

Male34Football supportersright to life
1PRATIWI, PURWOSARI, PASURUAN (identified)Female25Football supportersright to life
1SEPTIAN RAGIL SYAHPUTRA, PAKISAJI (identified)

Male21Football supportersright to life
1AHMAD KHOIRUL HUDA, GARUM, BLITAR (identified)

Male28Football supportersright to life
1YUNIA, NGAJUM (identified)Female19Football supportersright to life
1DAFA YUNANTO, TUREN (identified)

Male18Football supportersright to life
1PUTRI LESTARI, TUREN (identified)

Female21Football supportersright to life
1HINDUN DIANA, SUMBERMANJING WETAN (identified)Female19Football supportersright to life
1MUHAMMAD NIZAMUDIN, REJOSO, PASURUAN (identified)Male15Football supportersright to life
1YANUAR DWI BRAMANTYO, KANIGARAN, PROBOLINGGO (identified)Male13Football supportersright to life
1MOH. HENDRA, PAGAK (identified)

MaleUnknownFootball supportersright to life
1FAIZ AL FIKRI, NGUNUT, TULUNGAGUNG (identified)Male18Football supportersright to life
1MOH AKBAR ARRAHAN, GONDANGLEGI (identified)Male14Football supportersright to life
1MOCH. RIKKY ADITYA, TUMPANG (identified)

Male13Football supportersright to life
1HANDIKA RIZKY TRIONO, SUMBERPUCUNG (identified)

Male15Football supportersright to life
1RIA AMELIA PUTRI, KEDUNGKANDANG, KOTA MALANG (identified)

Female19Football supportersright to life
1ABDAN AGENG FAUZAN, WAGIR (identified)

Male18Football supportersright to life
1FAREL ATYANABI, PAKIS (identified)MaleUnknownFootball supportersright to life
1MOH. KINDI ARRUMI, PROBOLINGGO (identified)Male16Football supportersright to life
1DEVI RATNASARI P KLOJEN, KOTA MALANG (identified)FemaleUnknownFootball supportersright to life
1MUCH. YULIANTO,  KLOJEN, KOTA MALANG (identified)Male40Football supportersright to life
1NAJWA, KLOJEN, KOTA MALANG (identified)Female15Football supportersright to life
1ANGGAPRASDIYANSYAH, SUKUN, KOTA MALANG (identified)Male34Football supportersright to life
1MUH. FEBRIANSYAH, LOWOKWARU, KOTA MALANG (identified)Male17Football supportersright to life
1NOVAL BUDIONO, AMPEL GADING (identified)MaleUnknownFootball supportersright to life
1HERLANGGA ADITAMA, TULUNGAGUNG (identified)

MaleUnknownFootball supportersright to life
1ADITYA DIMAS PRATAMA, TUMPANG (identified)MaleUnknownFootball supportersright to life
1DAFFA FAKHRUDIN WIJAYA, KLOJEN, KOTA MALANG (identified)Male15Football supportersright to life
1RIYAN, KRAJAN NONGKOJAJAR (identified)

MaleUnknownFootball supportersright to life
1MUH. MUNGIZUL HIDAYATULLAH, BLITAR (identified)

MaleUnknownFootball supportersright to life
1MAYANG AGUSTIN, SUMBER PUCUNG (identified)FemaleUnknownFootball supportersright to life
1NITA MAULIDYA, KLOJEN, KOTA MALANG (identified)Female27Football supportersright to life
1RANGGA P SAPUTRA, SUKUN, KOTA MALANG (identified)MaleUnknownFootball supportersright to life
1MUHAMMAD HAIKAL MAULANA, TULUNGAGUNG (identified)Male17Football supportersright to life
1EKA PRIYATI MEI WULANDARI, PAKIS (identified)Female18Football supportersright to life
1RIZKY DWI, KRAJAN PROBOLINGGO (identified)MaleUnknownFootball supportersright to life
1RIZKY WAHYUDI, SUMBER PUCUNG (identified)MaleUnknownFootball supportersright to life
1FAJAR KHOIRUN AHMAD, SINGOSARI (identified)MaleUnknownFootball supportersright to life
1IBNU MUHAMMAD RAFI, KEDUNGKANDANG, KOTA MALANG (identified)Male15Football supportersright to life
1YULIO DINI PRASTIAWAN, SUMBERPUCUNG (identified)Male14Football supportersright to life
1HILDAN ADISTA,  (identified)

Male17Football supportersright to life
1HAIKAL, TIRTOYUDO (identified)Male15Football supportersright to life
1MUHAMMAD NAILUL AUTHOR, PAGAK (identified) MD was immediately taken home by the family from the scene (Family confirmation)Male15Football supportersright to life
1BAHRUL ULUM, KEDUNGKANDANG, KOTA MALANG (identified)Male22Football supportersright to life
1KUSNAENI, BLITAR (identified)

FemaleUnknownFootball supportersright to life
1JOVAN FARELLINO YUSEIFA PRATAMA PUTRA, BULULAWANG (identified)Male15Football supportersright to life
1RIYANG AMBARWATI, KEPANJEN (identified)Female20Football supportersright to life
1HAFISKA DWI ANINDITYA, WAGIR (identified)

Female14Football supportersright to life
1REVANYA SALWA SYAHRINI, BLIMBING, KOTA MALANG (identified)Female18Football supportersright to life
1IWAN, BLIMBING, KOTA MALANG (identified)Male45Football supportersright to life
1MUHAMMAD ILHAM SABILILLAH,  KEDUNGKANDANG, KOTA MALANG (identified)

Male18Football supportersright to life
1VERA PUSPITA AYU, LOWOKWARU, KOTA MALANG (identified)

Female22Football supportersright to life
1MOKHAMAD ABDURROHMAN, LOWOKWARU, KOTA MALANG (identified)Male29Football supportersright to life